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颜料简介
来源:      时间:2013/4/23

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    颜料是一种有色的细颗粒粉状物质,一般不溶于水、油、溶剂和树脂等介质中,能分散于各种介质中。它具有遮盖力、着色力,对光相对稳定,常用于配制涂料、油墨、以及着色塑料和橡胶,因此又可称是着色剂。

    颜料不同于染料在于一般染料能溶于水(老的区分),而颜料一般不溶于水。染料主要用于纺织品等材料的染色。不过这种区分也并不十分清楚,因为有些染料也可能不溶于水,而颜料也有用于纺织品的涂料印花及原浆着色。有机颜料的化学结构同有机染料的有相似之处,因此通常视为染料的一个分支。

    颜料(Pigment)用来着色的粉末状物质。在水、油脂、树脂、有机溶剂等介质中不溶解,但能均匀地在这些介质中分散并能使介质着色,而又具有一定的遮盖力。美术用的颜料基本要求颗粒越细腻越好,颜色越鲜艳越好,越持久不变色越好(稳定性要好)。水彩颜料的水彩颜料除了白色,几乎都是透明的。这样才能满足水彩罩染的需要。水粉颜料最初是在水彩颜料里添加白色的粉料,使颜色不透明而发明的。由于水彩颜料是透明的,所以一旦画错很难修改。而水粉颜料由于不透明就可以很轻易的修改。后来在水粉颜料中又添加了阿拉伯胶等原料进一步改善了它的性能。阿拉伯胶能让水粉颜料干后表面有一层光泽,但是在需要平涂的特殊场合(比如画效果图和为动画上色这样的情况),胶会在色表面形成不规则的斑点,或者让颜色不均匀,所以有专门的脱胶颜料。

    油画颜料是用油稀释颜料。国画颜料十分丰富,有各种类型,从矿粉到植物提取到动物提取,类型复杂。理论上来说只要有红黄蓝三原色就可以调出其他所有的颜色,但是调出来的颜色纯度总是不够高,所以现代的美术颜料厂商就为各种色相和明度的颜色,生产高纯度的颜料以满足各种需要。从最基本的12色到通常的24色甚至48色到六十多色。还不包括特殊的金属色。

    颜料通常具备下列性能:1.颜色。彩色颜料是一种对可见光能选择性吸收和散射的颜料,可以在自然光条件下呈现黄、红、蓝、绿等颜色。2.着色力。着色颜料吸收入射光的能力。可用相当于标准颜料样品着色力的相对百分率表示。3.遮盖力。在成膜物质中覆盖底材表面颜色的能力。常用遮盖1平方米面积的色漆中所含颜料的克数表示。4.耐光性。颜料在一定光照下保持其原有颜色的性能。一般采用八级制表示,八级最好。5.耐候性。颜料在一定的天然或人工气候条件下,保持其原有性能的能力。一般采用五级制表示,五级最好。6.挥发物。主要指水分,一般规定不超过1%。7.吸油量。指100克颜料形成均匀团块时所需的精制亚麻仁油的克数,以吸油量小者为好,吸油量与颜料颗粒的比表面积和结构有关。8.水溶物。颜料中含有的能溶于水的物质,以占颜料的质量百分数表示。制漆用的颜料,其水溶物常控制在1%以下。

    颜料从化学组成来分,可分为无机颜料和有机颜料两大类,就其来源又可分为天然颜料和合成颜料。天然颜料以矿物为来源,如:朱砂、红土、雄黄、孔雀绿以及重质碳酸钙 、硅灰石、重晶石粉、滑石粉、云母粉、高岭土等等。以生物为来源的,如来自动物的:胭脂虫红、天然鱼鳞粉等;来自植物的有:藤黄、茜素红、靛青等。合成颜料通过人工合成,如钛白、锌钡白、铅铬黄、铁蓝等无机颜料,以及大红粉、偶淡黄、酞菁蓝、喹吖啶酮等有机颜料。以颜料的功能来分类的如防锈颜料、磁性颜料、发光颜料、珠光颜料、导电颜料等。以颜色分类,则是方便而使用的方法。如此颜料可分为白色、黄色、红色、蓝色、绿色、棕色、紫色、黑色,而不顾其来源或化学组成。颜料可根据所含化合物的类别来分类:无机颜料可细分为氧化物、铬酸盐、硫酸盐、硅酸盐、硼酸盐、钼酸盐、磷酸盐、钒酸盐、铁氰酸盐、氢氧化物、硫化物、金属等;有机颜料可按化合物的化学结构分为偶氮颜料、酞菁颜料、蒽醌、靛族、喹吖啶酮、二恶嗪等多环颜料、芳甲烷系颜料等。从生产制造角度来分类又可分为钛系颜料、铁系颜料、铬系颜料、铅系颜料、锌系颜料、金属颜料、有机合成颜料,这种分类方法有实用意义,往往一个系统就能代表一个颜料专业生产行业。从应用角度来分类又可分成涂料用颜料、油墨用颜料、塑料用颜料、橡胶用颜料、陶瓷及搪瓷用颜料、医药化妆品用颜料、美术用颜料等等。各种专用颜料均有一些独特的性能,以符合应用的要求。颜料生产厂又可有针对性的推荐给专业用户一系列的颜料产品。

    Pigment is a kind of fine particle powder color, generally do not dissolve in water, oil, solvent and resin and other media, can be dispersed in various media. It has the covering power, tinting strength, light is relatively stable, commonly used in the preparation of paints, inks, and coloring plastics and rubber, so they can be called as colorant.

    Pigment dye is different from general dye is soluble in water (the old distinction), and pigments generally insoluble in water. The dye is mainly used for dyeing textile materials. But this distinction is not very clear, since some dyes can not dissolve in water, and is also used for pigment printing paint and dope dyeing textiles. The chemical structure of organic pigments with organic dyes are similar, so often as a branch of dyes.

    Pigment (Pigment) to powdery substance coloring. Do not dissolve in water, oil, resin, organic solvent media, but can be uniformly dispersed in the medium and the medium color, and has a certain covering power. Art pigments for the basic requirements of particles, the more detailed the better, the better the more bright colors, more durable not color the better (stability.). Watercolor watercolor pigment besides white, almost transparent. So as to meet the needs of watercolor cover dyed. Gouache is initially add powder white in watercolor paint, the color is opaque and the invention. Because of watercolor is transparent, so as to draw the wrong hard to modify. And gouache due to opacity can be easily modified. Later in gouache and add Arabia rubber and other raw materials for further improving its performance. Arabia glue can let the gouache paint dry surface with a layer of shiny, but in need of special occasions Tu (like the rendering and animation. This situation), glue will form irregular spots in the surface of colour, or let the uneven color, so there are special degumming pigment.

    Oil is oil diluted pigment. Traditional Chinese painting is very rich, there are various types, from the powder to the plant extract to animal extract, complex type. In theory, as long as there is red yellow blue can recall all of the other colors, but out of tune the color purity is not high enough, so the art paint manufacturers modern for various color and brightness of the color, the production of high purity pigments to meet a variety of needs. From the most basic 12 color to the usual 24 or 48 color to sixty color color. Does not include the metallic color special.1 color. Color pigment is a kind of absorption of visible light selective and scattering of the pigment, can appear yellow, red, blue, green under natural light and color.2 color. The ability of pigments absorb light. The relative percentage can be equivalent to the standard color sample color representation.3 covering power. In the film material covers the bottom surface color ability. Commonly used pigments contained paint covering the area of 1 square meters of G number representation.4 light. The pigment properties retain their original colors in a certain light. Generally use the eight level, eight level best.5 weathering. Pigment in certain natural or artificial climate conditions, the ability to maintain its original properties. Generally use the five level, five level best.6 volatiles. Mainly refers to the water, the general provisions of not more than 1%.7 oil absorption. A refined linseed required 100 grams pigment formation of uniform mass when the kernel oil grams, with small amount of oil is good, oil absorption and pigment particles specific surface area and structure.8 water soluble substances. Pigment containing water-soluble substances, in mass% pigment. Paint with paint, often below 1% of its water soluble substances.

    Pigment composition from chemical, can be divided into inorganic and organic pigments two kinds big, its origin can be divided into natural pigments and synthetic pigment. Natural pigment in mineral sources, such as: cinnabar, realgar, malachite green and red clay, calcium carbonate, silica, barite, talcum powder, mica powder, kaolin and so on. The biological origin, Buddha from animal: carmine, natural fish powder; from plants: Garcinia, alizarin red, indigo. The synthesis of pigment by artificial synthesis, such as titanium dioxide, lithopone, lead chrome yellow, iron blue inorganic pigment, as well as the big red, occasionally yellowish, phthalocyanine blue, quinacridone organic pigment. The classification by pigment function such as antirust pigment, magnetic pigment, luminous pigment, pearlescent pigment, conductive paint. With the color classification, is convenient and use method. So the pigment can be divided into white, yellow, red, blue, green, brown, purple, black, regardless of its source or chemical composition. Pigment according to the category classification of compounds: inorganic pigments can be subdivided into oxide, chromate, sulfate, silicate, borate, phosphate, molybdate, vanadate, iron thiocyanate, hydroxide, sulfide, metal; organic pigments can be divided into azo pigment, phthalocyanine, anthraquinone, indigo, quinacridone, two oxazine and polycyclic pigment, aryl methane pigments etc. according to the chemical structure of the compound. From the manufacturing point of view to classification can be divided into titanium pigment, iron, chromium, lead, and zinc pigments pigments pigments, pigments, synthetic organic pigments, has the practical significance of this classification method, often a system will represent a pigment professional production industry. From the application point of view to classification can be divided into paint with paint, ink, plastic paint, rubber paint with paint, ceramics and enamel paint, medicine cosmetics pigment, pigment and so on art. All kinds of special pigments have some unique properties, in order to meet the application requirements. Pigment production plant can be targeted for professional users pigment products series.

    
 
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